Few projects begin with absolute certainty. If absolute certainty was an "absolute" requirement, few projects would ever get off the ground.
That's why "assumptions" and "constraints" are so important, used as key defining factors to ensure timely, realistic project results. Read on to learn more. As projects are planned and executed, some facts and issues are known, others must be estimated. Estimation is an art, with many fine points to finesse between certainty and wishful thinking. You can't just hope you have the resources needed to do the job, and you can't just wait until every resource is available to begin.
Instead, you must take proactive steps to manage and mitigate using informed assumptions and constraints. Assumptions and constraints form a foundational basis for project planning, filling in the gaps between known proven facts and total guesswork. Aside from the consequences, effective planning demands that varied types of assumptions and constraints be considered, as illustrated in the following list:. As assumptions and constraints are defined as discussed beloweach of the "types" listed above must be considered to ensure both comprehensive results and realistic approaches.
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Assumptions and Constraints in Project Management
When it comes to managing, you need more than one approach to be consistently successful. The way you manage when surrounding conditions are good, is not the way you manage when time is running short, resources are stretched thin and people aren't working together. That's what fast tracking is for - and we can teach you how it's done. Learn More. Identify and Challenge - As assumptions are identified, each must be viewed with an appropriate degree of skepticism.
Assumptions cannot be mere guesswork or wishful thinking. Evaluate - Analyze according to confidence level i. How confident are you that this assumption will be proven correctfollowed by a related "if-then" risk counterpart analysis i.Ethiopia higher education university lecturer criteria
If this assumption is proven incorrect, what will be the likely consequences for the project? In contrast, constraints must be evaluated from a short term perspective, according to immediate impact - i. How does a given constraint limit or refine the project in one or more respects? For example, product availability constraints can impact multiple elements of a single project.
Product delays can elongate the project schedule, add to costs, and negatively impact resource availability.
As constraints are assessed, all points of impact must be determined. Incorporate - Assumptions, combined with known facts, will drive the formation of the project plan, providing the actionable basis albeit with varying degrees of certainty for planned tasks, schedules, budgets and resource assignments. Unidentified constraints will not just disappear, they will likely pop up at some later point as full fledged project problems.
Consider this example: You are working on a project where specialized technical skills are required. You estimate that these specialized resources will be required for 40 hours per week during the month of June, and you prepare your project plan based on this assumption. However, you fail to account for the fact that these resources will only be available for 20 hours per week in the month of June.
Initially, this resource limitation was a constraint, but since it was not identified at the outset, once June rolls around, it becomes a major problem.Tamara gustavson malibu
Control - As the project evolves, assumptions will be proven true or untrue. Changing circumstances may eliminate or modify previously identified constraints. In either case, you must be prepared to react, with contingencies, workarounds and modifications to plans and deliverables.The Assumption of Mary into Heaven often shortened to the Assumption is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic ChurchEastern and Oriental Orthodoxy the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.
In the churches that observe it, the Assumption is a major feast daycommonly celebrated on 15 August. The Catholic Church teaches as dogma that the Virgin Mary "having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory". In Munificentissimus Deus item 39 Pope Pius XII pointed to the Book of Genesis as scriptural support for the dogma in terms of Mary's victory over sin and death through her intimate association with "the new Adam" Christ  as also reflected in 1 Corinthians : "then shall come to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory".
The New Testament contains no explicit narrative about the death or Dormition, nor of the Assumption of Mary, but several scriptural passages have been theologically interpreted to describe the ultimate fate in this and the afterworld of the Mother of Jesus see below.
Also quite early are the very different traditions of the "Six Books" Dormition narratives. Later apocrypha based on these earlier texts include the De Obitu S. Dominae attributed to St. Johna work probably from around the turn of the 6th century that is a summary of the "Six Books" narrative.
The story also appears in De Transitu Virginis a late 5th-century work ascribed to St. Melito of Sardis that presents a theologically redacted summary of the traditions in the Liber Requiei Mariae. The Transitus Mariae tells the story of the apostles being transported by white clouds to the deathbed of Mary, each from the town where he was preaching at the hour. The Decretum Gelasianum in the s declared some transitus Mariae literature apocryphal. An Armenian letter attributed to Dionysus the Areopagite also mentioned the supposed event, although this was written sometime after the 6th century.
John of Damascusfrom this period, is the first church authority to advocate the doctrine under his own name. His contemporaries, Gregory of Tours and Modestus of Jerusalemhelped promote the concept to the wider church. In some versions of the story, the event is said to have taken place in Ephesusin the House of the Virgin Mary. This is a much more recent and localized tradition.
The earliest traditions say that Mary's life ended in Jerusalem see " Mary's Tomb ".
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By the 7th century, a variation emerged, according to which one of the apostles, often identified as St Thomaswas not present at the death of Mary but his late arrival precipitates a reopening of Mary's tomb, which is found to be empty except for her grave clothes.
In a later tradition, Mary drops her girdle down to the apostle from heaven as testament to the event. Teaching of the Assumption of Mary became widespread across the Christian world, having been celebrated as early as the 5th century and having been established in the East by Emperor Maurice around AD John Damascene records the following:.
Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, at the Council of Chalcedonmade known to the Emperor Marcian and Pulcheria, who wished to possess the body of the Mother of God, that Mary died in the presence of all the Apostles, but that her tomb, when opened upon the request of St. Thomas, was found empty; wherefrom the Apostles concluded that the body was taken up to heaven. But the people celebrated the Assumption as part of the cult of Mary that flourished from the Middle Ages.
The first Church author to speak of the bodily assumption of Mary, in association with an apocryphal transitus of the B. Gregory of Tours. Psychologist Carl Jungwho was deeply interested in archetypes and comparative religion, celebrated that the Catholic Church had officially elevated the Virgin Mary whom he noted as symbolizing the feminine principle to standing with three masculine figures in the panoply of the church.
Jung: "Answer to Job" [ citation needed ]. By the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory.
A large number of them pointed to the Book of Genesis as scriptural support for the dogma. In Pius XII's dogmatic statement, the phrase "having completed the course of her earthly life", leaves open the question of whether the Virgin Mary died before her assumption or not.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center?
What evidence does Coutu use to support her claim that improvisation requires resilience. A lady introduce her husband's name with saying by which can stop or move train what is that name. All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Wiki User A source of error is any factor that may affect the outcome of an experiment.
There are countless conceivable sources of error in any experiment; you want to focus on the factors that matter most.
Identify each source of error specifically and then explain how that source of error would have affected the results. Keep in mind that an "error" to a scientist does not mean "mistake"; it more closely means "uncertainty". Many students are tempted to say "human error", but this term is vague and lazy; any decent teacher will not accept it. Instead, think about specific things that happened during the lab exercise where the end results may have been affected.
To give an example one might find in a bio lab: perhaps a water bath's temperature was not monitored very carefully and you found that an enzyme's activity was greater than you expected.
In that case, you could write something like, "The temperature of the water bath during this exercise was not monitored carefully. It is possible that it was warmer or cooler than intended, and this would have affected the enzyme activity accordingly. The fact that our enzyme activity was found to be higher than expected leads me to believe that perhaps the water bath was too warm. Related Questions Asked in Physics How do you overcome sources of error in a lab experiment? Complete the laboratory as carefully and exactly as you can.
Asked in Titrations What are sources of systematic error in a titration experiment? The most common sources of systematic error in a titration experiment are errors in calibration.
The concentrations of substances used could be incorrect. Asked in Science Why do scientists identify sources of error in their experiment?
Asked in Biology What would be unavoidable sources of error in a lab experiment? There are several sources of error in Physics Lab experiments. These include incomplete definition, environmental factors, and physical variations. Asked in Chemistry What are sources of error in chemistry lab? Examples: weighing error, volumes error, operators error, calculus error, presence of impurities, inadequate conditions of work, lack of standards, instrumente error, contamination of sample etc.
Asked in Physics What could be sources of error in the experiment of compound pendulum? Unitary 3. Error due to air displacement. Asked in Science, Statistics What are the possible sources of error in this experiment value data is not close to accepted and true value?
Not enough information.The four assumptions are: Linearity of residuals Independence of residuals Normal distribution of residuals Equal variance of residuals. Linearity — we draw a scatter plot of residuals and y values.
Independence — we worry about this when we have longitudinal dataset. Longitudinal dataset is one where we collect observations from the same entity over time, for instance stock price data — here we collect price info on the same stock i.
We generally have two types of data: cross sectional and longitudinal. Cross -sectional datasets are those where we collect data on entities only once. For example we collect IQ and GPA information from the students at any one given time think: camera snap shot.
Longitudinal data set is one where we collect GPA information from the same student over time think: video. In cross sectional datasets we do not need to worry about Independence assumption. Normality : we draw a histogram of the residuals, and then examine the normality of the residuals.
If the residuals are not skewed, that means that the assumption is satisfied. Equality of variance: We look at the scatter plot which we drew for linearity see above — i. If the residuals do not fan out in a triangular fashion that means that the equal variance assumption is met. In the above picture both linearity and equal variance assumptions are met. It is linear because we do not see any curve in there.
In the picture above both linearity and equal variance assumptions are violated. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Skip to content. For example we collect IQ and GPA information from the students at any one given time think: camera snap shot Longitudinal data set is one where we collect GPA information from the same student over time think: video.
Even though is slightly skewed, but it is not hugely deviated from being a normal distribution.In project management, we make assumptions and constraints always limit us. They are also a part of our lives. In the given example, you can think of two. The first constraint is money. If you have USD in your hand, you cannot shop for more than this amount. This means you cannot continue your shopping after that. Likewise, projects also have assumptions and constraints.
You must understand and control these factors if you want to complete your project successfully. These are defined and identified when the project starts.Adidas product strategy
Afterward, they are refined and re-analyzed throughout the project life cycle. They are an essential aspect of your project. They are not managed like the requirements or risks.
However, properly documenting them helps to protect you from many issues. An assumption is what you believe to be true. You make assumptions based on your experience or the information available on hand. Assumptions may not end up being true. Sometimes, they can be false and it may affect your project. This adds risk to the project. For example, let us reconsider the earlier example. You assumed that it would take one hour for you to reach the destination.Competing ideas: Other considerations Analysis within the scientific community.
For example, imagine a very simple test of the hypothesis that substance A stops bacterial growth. Some Petri dishes are spread with a mixture of substance A and bacterial growth medium, and others are spread with a mixture of inert substance B and bacterial growth medium.
Bacteria are spread on all the Petri dishes, and one day later, the plates are examined to see which fostered the growth of bacterial colonies and which did not. This test is straightforward, but still relies on many assumptions: we assume that the bacteria can grow on the growth medium, we assume that substance B does not affect bacterial growth, we assume that one day is long enough for colonies to grow, and we assume that the color pen we use to mark the outside of the dishes is not influencing bacterial growth.
Technically, these are all assumptions, but they are perfectly reasonable ones that can be tested. The scientist performing the experiment described above would justify many of her assumptions by performing additional tests in parallel with the experimental ones.
For example, she would separately test whether substance B affects bacterial growth to check that it was indeed inert as she'd assumed.
Other assumptions are justified by past tests performed by other scientists. For instance, the question of whether or not bacteria can grow on the growth medium would have been studied by many previous researchers.Marc Andreessen on Change, Constraints, and Curiosity
And some assumptions might remain untested simply because all of our knowledge about the field suggests that the assumption is a safe one e. All tests involve assumptions, but most of these are assumptions that can and have been verified separately.
Nevertheless, when evaluating an idea in light of test results, it's important to keep in mind the test's assumptions and how well-supported they are. If an expectation generated by an idea is not borne out in a test, it might be because the idea is wrong and should be rejected, or it might be that the idea is right, but an assumption of the test has been violated. And if the test results end up lending support to the idea, it might be because the idea is correct and should be acceptedor it might be because a violated assumption has produced a false positive result.
All scientific tests involve making assumptions. These assumptions can be independently tested, increasing our confidence in our test results. To see an example of how changes in these assumptions can affect the over-arching hypothesis, check out the story Ozone depletion: Uncovering the hidden hazard of hairspray.
How does science investigate any single hypothesis if they always get bundled together in our tests? To find out, visit Bundle up your hypotheses. All of science is based on a few fundamental assumptions that transcend any individual experiment or study. To learn what these are, visit Basic assumptions of science.
Competing ideas: Other considerations. Analysis within the scientific community.The purpose of this lab will be to determine the mass of the cargo carried on a low friction cart by analyzing its momentum during an elastic collision. The momentum will be calculated by recording and analysing a video, in LoggerPro3.
The results will show the steps and calculations to find the mass of the cargo and will result into a mass of 1. The purpose of this lab is to determine the mass of the cargo, which is carried on a low friction cart, by analysing its momentum during an elastic collision. In this lab, it was hypothesized that the mass of the cargo will be greater than the mass that was placed on the second cart.
The mass was hypothesized to be 1. In this experiment, two low friction carts were set 1 metre apart. One cart had a mass of 1. The two carts were pushed towards each other with some initial speed and they collided, and the springs compressed resulting into the carts bouncing off, resulting into an elastic collision.
The collision was recorded by a digital camera and there were markers placed on both carts which were visible to the camera Figure 1. This experiment was repeated five times with different known masses. Then, a computer program LoggerPro was used to analyze the video to determine the initial and final speeds of Cart A and Cart B. The video was opened in LoggerPro3. The markers on the carts help recognize the motion of the carts as they collide.
The initial and final speeds were recorded using the LoggerPro video analysis tools. As the carts approach each other, their motion is recorded by clicking on the marker. All the points before and after the collision made a graph.
Using a few points on the graph before the collision, a line of best fit was drawn which gave the initial speed. Using a few points on the graph after the collision, a line of best fit was drawn which gave final speed. Once the initial and final speeds were recorded for both Carts, the momentum equation was used to determine the mass of the cargo.
One must consider the mass of the Cart as well as the added mass. Mass of Cart 1 is 0. Table 1: This table shows the masses of Cart 1 and Cart 2 that were used by the five different groups during the experiment.
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Each group placed a mass on Cart 2 and collided Cart 1 and Cart 2 resulting in an elastic collision. The collision was recorded and analyzed by all five groups. The initial and final speeds were recorded using LoggerPro. The speeds of both Carts is shown in Table 2. Table 2: This table shows the initial and finals speeds of Cart 1 and Cart 2 that were recorded using the LoggerPro video analysis program.
The same process of calculations was repeated to find the mass of the cargo for the other four groups. Table 3 shows the calculated mass of the cargo for all five groups. When the mass of the cargo was calculated for all five groups, the average was taken to find an average mass. The values were rounded to three significant figures because the recorded mass had three significant figures.Inferenza statistica
In this experiment, the first step was to eliminate any factors that would lead to friction. The first steps that were taken to avoid friction in between the cart and the track were that the track was cleaned with a paper towel to remove any dust or particles on the tract. The wheels were also cleaned to avoid friction and try to have an elastic collision with very little or no energy lost.
The springs on the carts were compressed three times to make sure the springs are working and are not jammed.
Before recording the actual collision, a trail was done by colliding both carts to see if everything was working as it should. Next, the camera was moved to a spot where distortion can be avoided. The camera was placed about one and a half metre away from the setup.
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